- This paper explores the applicability of a transit-oriented development (TOD) framework for Penang in view of the upcoming implementation of the Penang Transport Master Plan (PTMP).
- Examples of TOD implemented in Copenhagen, Singapore, and Hong Kong are examined for lessons that can be applied in PTMP.
- Malaysia’s fiscal federalism and economic policies are two broad factors hindering public transport improvement in Penang. TOD can be a solution to this, and offers a way to circumvent them.
- For PTMP to succeed, the project cannot be conceived as merely a mobility issue but as an urban development undertaking within a TOD framework.